Flask-SQLAlchemy defines sensible defaults. However, sometimes customization is needed. There are various ways to customize how the models are defined and interacted with.

These customizations are applied at the creation of the SQLAlchemy object and extend to all models derived from its Model class.

Model Class

SQLAlchemy models all inherit from a declarative base class. This is exposed as db.Model in Flask-SQLAlchemy, which all models extend. This can be customized by subclassing the default and passing the custom class to model_class.

The following example gives every model an integer primary key, or a foreign key for joined-table inheritance.


Integer primary keys for everything is not necessarily the best database design (that’s up to your project’s requirements), this is only an example.

from flask_sqlalchemy import Model, SQLAlchemy
import sqlalchemy as sa
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declared_attr

class IdModel(Model):
    def id(cls):
        for base in cls.__mro__[1:-1]:
            if getattr(base, '__table__', None) is not None:
                type = sa.ForeignKey(
            type = sa.Integer

        return sa.Column(type, primary_key=True)

db = SQLAlchemy(model_class=IdModel)

class User(db.Model):
    name = db.Column(db.String)

class Employee(User):
    title = db.Column(db.String)

Model Mixins

If behavior is only needed on some models rather than all models, use mixin classes to customize only those models. For example, if some models should track when they are created or updated:

from datetime import datetime

class TimestampMixin(object):
    created = db.Column(
        db.DateTime, nullable=False, default=datetime.utcnow)
    updated = db.Column(db.DateTime, onupdate=datetime.utcnow)

class Author(db.Model):

class Post(TimestampMixin, db.Model):

Query Class

It is also possible to customize what is available for use on the special query property of models. For example, providing a get_or method:

from flask_sqlalchemy import BaseQuery, SQLAlchemy

class GetOrQuery(BaseQuery):
    def get_or(self, ident, default=None):
        return self.get(ident) or default

db = SQLAlchemy(query_class=GetOrQuery)

# get a user by id, or return an anonymous user instance
user = User.query.get_or(user_id, anonymous_user)

And now all queries executed from the special query property on Flask-SQLAlchemy models can use the get_or method as part of their queries. All relationships defined with db.relationship (but not sqlalchemy.orm.relationship()) will also be provided with this functionality.

It also possible to define a custom query class for individual relationships as well, by providing the query_class keyword in the definition. This works with both db.relationship and sqlalchemy.relationship:

class MyModel(db.Model):
    cousin = db.relationship('OtherModel', query_class=GetOrQuery)


If a query class is defined on a relationship, it will take precedence over the query class attached to its corresponding model.

It is also possible to define a specific query class for individual models by overriding the query_class class attribute on the model:

class MyModel(db.Model):
    query_class = GetOrQuery

In this case, the get_or method will be only availble on queries orginating from MyModel.query.

Model Metaclass


Metaclasses are an advanced topic, and you probably don’t need to customize them to achieve what you want. It is mainly documented here to show how to disable table name generation.

The model metaclass is responsible for setting up the SQLAlchemy internals when defining model subclasses. Flask-SQLAlchemy adds some extra behaviors through mixins; its default metaclass, DefaultMeta, inherits them all.

  • BindMetaMixin: __bind_key__ is extracted from the class and applied to the table. See Multiple Databases with Binds.

  • NameMetaMixin: If the model does not specify a __tablename__ but does specify a primary key, a name is automatically generated.

You can add your own behaviors by defining your own metaclass and creating the declarative base yourself. Be sure to still inherit from the mixins you want (or just inherit from the default metaclass).

Passing a declarative base class instead of a simple model base class, as shown above, to base_class will cause Flask-SQLAlchemy to use this base instead of constructing one with the default metaclass.

from flask_sqlalchemy import SQLAlchemy
from flask_sqlalchemy.model import DefaultMeta, Model

class CustomMeta(DefaultMeta):
    def __init__(cls, name, bases, d):
        # custom class setup could go here

        # be sure to call super
        super(CustomMeta, cls).__init__(name, bases, d)

    # custom class-only methods could go here

db = SQLAlchemy(model_class=declarative_base(
    cls=Model, metaclass=CustomMeta, name='Model'))

You can also pass whatever other arguments you want to declarative_base() to customize the base class as needed.

Disabling Table Name Generation

Some projects prefer to set each model’s __tablename__ manually rather than relying on Flask-SQLAlchemy’s detection and generation. The table name generation can be disabled by defining a custom metaclass.

from flask_sqlalchemy.model import BindMetaMixin, Model
from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import DeclarativeMeta, declarative_base

class NoNameMeta(BindMetaMixin, DeclarativeMeta):

db = SQLAlchemy(model_class=declarative_base(
    cls=Model, metaclass=NoNameMeta, name='Model'))

This creates a base that still supports the __bind_key__ feature but does not generate table names.